1.cultural bias in the instrument or clinician
2. Theoretical orientation
3.Underemphasis on the external situation
•-delinates meaningful subvarieties of maladaptive behavior •-first step in the nature, causes, and treatment process of a disorder •-provides a means of universal communication regarding abnormal behavior •-the product of human invention-disorders can be “constructs” •-reliability is the ability of a measuring device to produce the same result each time. •-validity is when a measurement actually measures what it is supposed to measure. 5 Axes of DSM-IV-TR
oAxis I: the clinical syndromes or conditions
oAxis II: personality disorders and MR
oAxis III: general medical conditions
oAxis IV: psychosocial and environmental problems
oAxis V: Global assessment of functioning
Acute: disorder lasting less than 6 months and chronic refers to a long-standing disorder. -symptoms refer to the patient’s subjective description.
-signs are objective observations by clinician
Psychotherapy is the belief that people with psychological problems can change and learn adaptive ways of perceiving, evaluating, and behaving. Worldview and self-concept are distorted due to pathology.
-importance of environmental factors in treatment
Behavior therapy: recognizes the importance of behavior and the role of learning. -exposure therapy-systematic desensitization, flooding, in vivo exposure, imaginal exposure -aversion therapy, modeling, systematic use of reinforcement-response shaping, token economies, evaluating behavior therapy Cognitive/cognitive-behavioral therapy: emphasis on how one “acts” and “thinks” and the influence on behavior -rational emotive behavior therapy-attempts to change a client’s maladaptive thought processes -Becks cognitive therapy: problems result from biased processing of external events or...