4 Biological Molecules

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Kyle Ouellette

Building 4 Biological Molecules
Carbohydrates, Amino Acids, Nucleotides, Lipids

Observe:
1. Carbohydrates (monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides), Lipids (of many kinds, including, triglycerides, phospholipids, and steroids, such as testosterone, estrogen, and cholesterol), Proteins (including enzymes, lipoproteins, glycoproteins, structural proteins, hormones, etc), and Nucleotides ( nucleotides join to form nucleic acids, which, along with a sugar and phosphate group, build DNA, RNA, and ATP) Problem Statement:

1. Will making models help to better understand the form and function of these 4 types of biological molecules and their subgroups? Hypothesis:
1. Yes, I think that making the molecules will help understand the 4 types of biological molecules and their subgroups, because, it will give a visual prospective. Purpose(s):
1. To better understand each type of biological molecule discussed in Chapter 3 2. To understand what subgroups are
3. To understand monomers and polymers
4. To understand the structure of these biological molecules 5. To understand what their functions are in the body
Materials:
1. Black=Carbon
2. Red=Oxygen
3. Yellow=Hydrogen
4. Purple=Phosphorus
5. Orange=Nitrogen
6. Toothpix=Bonds
7. Ribbons to make amino acids
8. Nucleotide puzzle (part 2)
Procedure:1. CARBOHYDRATES
1. Build this portion of the glucose molecule
(Monosaccharide: Glucose: C6H12O6)

2. Now build a second molecule and place besides the 1st
(Two monosaccharides: Two Glucose: C6H12O6)

3. Remove the HYDROXYL group (-OH) from 1 glucose molecule and the hydrogen part of the HYDROXYL group from the other. (H2O is a byproduct) and (Disaccharide: Maltose: C12H22O11 is formed)

4. Re-place the HYDROXYL group (-OH) and hydrogen in the corresponding glucose molecules

2A. AMINO ACIDS TO POLYPEPTIDES TO PROTEINS

5. Build an Amino Acid

**What is the name of the –NH2 functional group?
* Amino functional group

**What is the name of the –COOH functional group?
* Carboxyl functional group

6. Build a second Amino Acid

7. Remove the OH of the Carboxyl group of 1 Amino Acid and the H of the Amino group of the other Amino Acid, and move the 3 atoms together.

**What molecule did you remove?
* H2O

This is how hundreds of amino acids line up to form polypeptide chains **Make a colored sketch of the ribbons of your molecules.

2B. AMINO ACIDS TO POLYPEPTIDES TO PROTEINS

8. Using your ribbon kite, tape the 4 amino acids together in any order **(There are only 20 different amino acids (see page 249))
Can you see how by putting in different orders, they can make different chains? That is called their “Primary Structure”.
9. Twist your ribbon
**Can you see how the polypeptide chain can change even more? This twisting is called the “Secondary Structure”. **Explain the difference between primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure of proteins. Use the chart on page 58 to help. **Make a colored sketch of the ribbons.

1. PRIMARY STRUCTURE: is simply a sequence of amino acids that determines everything about the protein’s final shape.

2. SECONDARY STRUCTURE: has the structural motifs: alpha helix/beta pleated sheet/random coil. They form do to electrochemical bonding and repulsion forces and the result is the folded up proteins.

3. TERTIARY STRUCTURE: these motifs may keep on turning, twisting, and the become a larger molecule structure.

4. QUATERNARY STRUCTURE: several polypeptide chains may be linked together in forming a larger and more complex structure

3. NUCLEOTIDES, NUCLEIC ACID, AND THE DNA MOLECULE

10. Use your nucleotide puzzle kit to see how the nucleotides fit together. The nucleotides are molecules that have a phosphate (PO4--) group, a 5 carbon or pentose sugar, and a nitrogen base. The names of the 4 nitrogen bases are: A=Adenine...
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