20th Century History Study Guide

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Prior to 1900’s
* Unequal Treaties unfair for China
* Qing Dynasty (1644 1912)
* 1842: War over trade Britons want to trade Chinese opium for their tea C don’t want opium B and C battle it out C lose disastrously leads to Treaty of Nanjing: B gets Hong Kong starts to take over parts of China * extraterritoriality: citizens of ruling country abide by their own country’s laws * Most Favored Nation status:

* 1844: Treaty of Whampoa French open up areas in China for trade ports are forced open b/c Chinese keep losing wars French get Guangzhou * 1858: Treaty of Tianjin Russia, Germany, and Italy take Yangtze River * 1895: Japanese Invasion of China leads to Treaty of Shimonoseki: Japan gets Korea and Taiwan (valuable ports) * 1850: Clayton Bullwer Treaty treaty with Britain; no sole ownership of Panama Canal (by 1914 it was US property) * 1871: Franco-Prussian War (siege of Paris) leads to the unification of Germany * 1880s: Panamanian revolts

* 1888: Kaiser Wilhelm II is crowned
* 1894: German-Russian friendship ends
* 1895: Decision to Declare War
* For
* Support for the Cubans (want to civilize them)
* Public pressure generated by yellow journalism
* Against
* Want to protect property; hold Spain responsible for protecting US property * Avoid weakening US dollar/US credit via silver
* Constitutional issue does US Constitution work overseas? * Don’t want multi-racial society
* Result = No War
* 1897: Decision to Declare War
* For
* Public pressure b/c of yellow journalism
* Want to civilize Cuba
* Japanese invasion of China/Philippines as base
* Distrust of Spain (USS Maine)
* Against
* Hold Spain responsible
* Want to avoid weakening US dollar
* Constitutional issues
* Don’t want multi-racial society
* Result = Demands issued to Spain
* 1898: Decision to Declare War
* For
* Spanish failure to reform possible leftist revolution * Business groups favor war over suspense
* Spain refuses to grant Cuban independence
* Result = US Declaration of War (April 11th 1898)
* 1898: Spanish American War
* Sinking of USS Maine American casualties = Wilson forced to fight Spain * Teller Amendment: when the US defeated the Spanish occupants, it would give the Cubans their freedom (US wants Cuba) * Platt Amendment: replaces earlier Teller Amendment US can intervene to protect Cuban independence; limits Cuban debt to keep out Europeans; 99 year lease on Guantanamo Bay; opens Cuba to US investment * Blockade of Santiago US blockades main harbor of Cuba (Santiago) cut off w/ Navy Spanish troops try to break through and lose entire fleet * War over in a couple months

* Treaty of Paris: US gets the Phillipines (base = crucial), Guam, and PR, Cuba gains independence, and US pays Spanish $20 million * 1899: Boer War fought by Britons and descendants of Dutch settlers (Boers) in Africa Brits gain Dutch colonies * 1899: Open Door Policy (1)

* Foreign powers charge equal rates for transport
* Taxes apply to all spheres of influence and collected by Chinese * Goals: uphold Chinese territorial integrity and limit the European powers from excluding the US * Problems US can’t back up policy b/c they have no presence in China * Britons help US try to enforce it for us b/c we have the same interest (keep spot open); but they can’t commit troops to both S. Africa and China * ODP 1 fails b/c China is not split up other powers brush off policy

1900’s
* 1900: Boxer Rebellion
* Boxers = radical anti-Qing, anti-government, anti-foreigner Chinese rebels * Boxers attack foreign quarters, massacred missionaries, besieged Beijing...
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