Information & Knowledge management for Facilities Management Facilities Management is making a web of decisions across the whole process. Making informed decision needs information; making correct decision needs knowledge. That is why we will talk about information/knowledge management in Facilities Management 1. Concepts of data, information, and knowledge 2. Major information in the practice of construction project management 3. Significance of promoting information management in the practice of construction project management 4. Major principles of implementing information management 5. Information management system 6. Typical problems with information management in the practice of construction project management 1. Concepts of data, information, and knowledge 1. Data: symbols 2. Information: data that are processed to be useful; provides answers to "who", "what", "where", and "when" questions 3. Knowledge: application of data and information; answers "how" questions 4. Understanding: appreciation of "why" 5. Wisdom: evaluated understanding. Ackoff indicates that the first four categories relate to the past; they deal with what has been or what is known. Only the fifth category, wisdom, deals with the future because it incorporates vision and design. With wisdom, people can create the future rather than just grasp the present and past. But achieving wisdom isn't easy; people must move successively through the other categories.
A further elaboration of Ackoff's definitions follows: Data... data is raw. It simply exists and has no significance beyond its existence (in and of itself). It can exist in any form, usable or not. It does not have meaning of itself. In computer parlance, a spreadsheet generally starts out by holding data. Data usually refers to facts obtained through empirical records, research or observation. Data will be processed and then become information. Data is derived from facts or events in the real world and that can be recorded. Data can be text, image, pictures or numbers in their unprocessed forms. In the application of computing knowledge or software, the word “data” means something expressed as one or more numbers, or a string of alphabetic characters, to be fed into a mathematical or logical procedure. Data thus sometimes implies what is fed to a computer (i.e. the input), while result emerging from the process is the output or information. Information... information is data that has been given meaning by way of relational connection. This "meaning" can be useful, but does not have to be. In computer parlance, a relational database makes information from the data stored within it. Information is the processed data presented in a given situation, which enables effective action. In other words, information is meaningful data which influences a decision or which is used for an action. "Meaningful" implies that the presentation of information after data processing is understandable and useful to the users. Thus the quality of information is determined by: • Data (source of information) • Data process (data analysis, data interpretation, data presentation, which determine the accuracy and mode of presentation of information) • User (Information has different value to different users)
Knowledge... knowledge is the appropriate collection of information, such that it's intent is to be useful. Knowledge is a deterministic process. When someone "memorizes" information (as less-aspiring test-bound students often do), then they have amassed knowledge. This knowledge has useful meaning to them, but it does not provide for, in and of itself, an integration such as would infer further knowledge. For example, elementary school children memorize, or amass knowledge of, the "times table". They can tell you that "2 x 2 = 4" because they have amassed that knowledge (it being included in the times table). But when asked what is "1267 x 300", they can not respond correctly because that entry is not...
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