1 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Campbell's Biology, 9e (Reece Et Al.)

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1 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Campbell's Biology, 9e (Reece et al.) Chapter 32 An Overview of Animal Diversity

About 40% of the questions in this chapter are either scenario questions or art questions, which typically involve higher-order thinking. Among these are two new sets of scenario questions, each devoted to a single-species animal phylum. The first pertains to the (possibly) basal animal known as Trichoplax, and the second to the bizarre phylum found only on lobster lips, the Cycliophora.

Multiple-Choice Questions

1) Both animals and fungi are heterotrophic. What distinguishes animal heterotrophy from fungal heterotrophy is that only animals derive their nutrition by A) preying on animals.
B) ingesting it.
C) consuming living, rather than dead, prey.
D) using enzymes to digest their food.
Answer: B
Topic: Concept 32.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

2) The larvae of some insects are merely small versions of the adult, whereas the larvae of other insects look completely different from adults, eat different foods, and may live in different habitats. Which of the following most directly favors the evolution of the latter, more radical, kind of metamorphosis? A) natural selection of sexually immature forms of insects

B) changes in the homeobox genes governing early development C) the evolution of meiosis
D) the development of an oxidizing atmosphere on Earth
E) the origin of a brain
Answer: B
Topic: Concept 32.1
Skill: Application/Analysis

3) Which of the following is (are) unique to animals?
A) cells that have mitochondria
B) the structural carbohydrate, chitin
C) nervous conduction and muscular movement
D) heterotrophy
E) Two of these responses are correct.
Answer: C
Topic: Concept 32.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension
2 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 4) What do animals as diverse as corals and monkeys have in common? A) body cavity between body wall and digestive system
B) number of embryonic tissue layers
C) type of body symmetry
D) presence of Hox genes
E) degree of cephalization
Answer: D
Topic: Concept 32.1
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension 5) The Hox genes came to regulate each of the following in what sequence, from earliest to most recent? 1. identity and position of paired appendages in protostome embryos 2. anterior-posterior orientation of segments in protostome embryos 3. positioning of tentacles in cnidarians

4. anterior-posterior orientation in vertebrate embryos
A) 4 → 1 → 3 → 2
B) 4 → 2 → 3 → 1
C) 4 → 2 → 1 → 3
D) 3 → 2 → 1 → 4
E) 3 → 4 → 1 → 2
Answer: D
Topic: Concept 32.1
Skill: Synthesis/Evaluation

6) In individual insects of some species, whole chromosomes that carry larval genes are eliminated from the genomes of somatic cells at the time of metamorphosis. A consequence of this occurrence is that A) we could not clone a larva from the somatic cells of such an adult insect. B) such species must reproduce only asexually.

C) the descendents of these adults do not include a larval stage. D) metamorphosis can no longer occur among the descendents of such adults. E) Two of these responses are correct.
Answer: A
Topic: Concept 32.1
Skill: Application/Analysis

7) The last common ancestor of all animals was probably a
A) unicellular chytrid.
B) unicellular yeast.
C) multicellular algae.
D) multicellular fungus.
E) flagellated protist.
Answer: E
Topic: Concept 32.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension 3 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 8) Evidence of which structure or characteristic would be most surprising to find among fossils of the Ediacaran fauna?

A) true tissues
B) hard parts
C) bilateral symmetry
D) cephalization
E) embryos
Answer: B
Topic: Concept 32.2
Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

9) Which statement is most consistent with the hypothesis that the Cambrian explosion was...
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